Type 1 diabetes is a disorder in which your immune system destroys insulin-making cells in your pancreas. These cells are referred to as beta cells. The term “juvenile diabetes” refers to the fact that the ailment is typically identified in younger persons, such as children and teenagers.
A condition called secondary diabetes is like type 1, except your beta cells are wiped off by something else, such an illness or an injury to your pancreas, rather than by your immune system.
Both of these conditions are distinct from type 2 diabetes, which develops when your body fails to respond to insulin in the appropriate manner.
Signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes
The symptoms are frequently unobtrusive but can quickly become severe. They are as follows:
An extreme lack of thirst
Increased need for food (especially after eating)
The mouth is dry
gastrointestinal distress and puking
loss of weight for no apparent reason, despite the fact that you are still eating and feeling hungry
The breath is difficult to draw in and out (your doctor may call this Kussmaul respiration)
Frequent infections of your skin, urinary tract, or vagina
Crankiness or mood fluctuations
Bedwetting in a child who has previously been dry throughout the night
Signs of an emergency with type 1 diabetes include:
Disorientation and trembling
Short, shallow breaths
Fruity fragrance to your breath
Ache in the guts
a state of having lost awareness (rare)
Type 1 Diabetes Causes
Insulin is a hormone that assists in the movement of sugar, also known as glucose, into the tissues of your body. Your cells use it as fuel.
The mechanism is disrupted when beta cells are damaged as a result of type 1 diabetes. Because insulin is not present to carry out its function, glucose cannot enter the cells in your body. Instead, it accumulates in your blood, and this causes your cells to become malnourished. This results in elevated blood sugar, which can lead to health problems such as:
Dehydration. When there is an excessive amount of sugar in your blood, you will urinate more frequently. Your body will get rid of it in this way in order to protect itself. Your body will get increasingly dehydrated as a result of the enormous amount of water that leaves with your urine.
Loss of body weight When you urinate, the glucose that leaves your body also takes calories with it. Because of this, many persons who have high blood sugar also experience weight loss. In addition, dehydration is a contributing factor.
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). If your body is unable to obtain enough glucose for fuel, it will instead start breaking down the fat cells in your body. This creates molecules called ketones. In an effort to assist, your liver will release the sugar that it has stored. Without insulin, however, your body is unable to make use of it, and as a result, it accumulates in your blood along with the acidic ketones. If immediate treatment is not received, ketoacidosis, which is caused by an excess of glucose, dehydration, and an accumulation of acid in the body, can be fatal if left untreated.
Toxic effects on your body If you have high amounts of glucose in your blood, this can cause damage to the nerves and small blood vessels in your kidneys, eyes, and heart over time. They can also make you more prone to acquire hardened arteries, or atherosclerosis, which can lead to heart attacks and strokes.
Diabetes of the type 1 variety cannot be avoided in any way. The factors that can bring it on are not fully understood by medical professionals. They are aware, however, that your genes play a part.
They are also aware that it is possible to develop type 1 diabetes if something in your environment, such as a virus, sends a message to your immune system to attack your pancreas. The majority of persons who are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes have symptoms of this attack, which are known as autoantibodies. They can be found in almost all people who have the illness, which occurs when someone has excessive blood sugar.
It is possible to develop type 1 diabetes in conjunction with other autoimmune conditions, such as Graves disease or vitiligo.
Potential Triggers for Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes affects just about 5 percent of persons who have the disease. It has the same effect on both males and females. You’re at higher risk of developing it if you:
Type 1 Diabetes Diagnosis
The levels of glucose in your blood will be measured if your primary care physician suspects that you have type 1 diabetes. They might test your urine for glucose or substances that your body creates when there is not enough insulin in your system.
The Treatment for Diabetes Type 1
Diabetes type 1 patients have a good chance of living long and healthy lives. You’re going to need to keep a tight check on how much sugar is in your blood. Your primary care physician will provide you with a target range for the numbers to remain inside. Adjust your insulin, meals, and activities as appropriate.
In order to keep their blood sugar under control, people with type 1 diabetes are need to inject themselves with insulin.
When your doctor talks about insulin, they’ll mention three primary things:
The amount of time it takes for something to enter your system and start bringing down your blood sugar is referred to as its “onset.”
“Peak time” is when insulin is doing the most job in terms of decreasing your blood sugar.
“Duration” is how long it remains working after onset.
Several kinds of insulin are available.
In about 15 minutes, rapid-acting treatment will begin to take effect. It reaches its maximum effect approximately one hour after you take it, and its effects continue for another two to four hours after that.
About half an hour later, regular or short-acting doses start to take effect. It reaches its maximum effectiveness between 2 and 3 hours, and then it continues to operate for another 3 to 6 hours.
After receiving the injection, it will take between two and four hours for the intermediate-acting medication to enter your bloodstream. It is at its most effective between the hours of four and twelve, and it continues to function between the hours of twelve and eighteen.
Long-acting medications enter your system gradually over the course of several hours and continue to work for around twenty-four.
It’s possible that your doctor will have you begin treatment with two different kinds of insulin administered through injection twice a day. You might require further doses at a later time.
The vast majority of insulin is sold in what is known as a vial, which is a small glass bottle. You use a syringe that has a needle attached to the end of it to draw it out, and then you administer the shot to yourself. Some of them come in a pen that has already been filled. Inhalation is yet another method. You can also receive it through the use of a pump, which is a device that you wear and which delivers the medication to your body through a thin tube. Your physician will guide you in selecting the formulation and administration strategy that are most appropriate for your needs.
Changes in Way of Life
Exercising regularly is an essential component in the management of type 1 diabetes. But going for a run won’t solve the problem by itself. Your blood sugar might be impacted by physical activity. Therefore, you need to ensure that the amount of insulin you take and the food you consume are in harmony with any activity, including mundane chores like cleaning the house or yard.
The more you know, the more power you have. Determine how an activity affects you by monitoring your blood sugar levels before, during, and after participating in the activity. There are some things that will raise your levels, while others will not. In order to prevent your insulin from falling to dangerously low levels, you can either bring it down or eat a snack that contains carbohydrates.
Test yourself for ketones, which are acids that can develop when blood sugar levels are too high. If your blood sugar is above 240 mg/dL, you should do so. If they’re okay, then you shouldn’t have any problems moving forward. Skipping the workout is recommended if they are high.
You will also need to have an understanding of the effects that food has on your blood sugar. As soon as you have an understanding of how carbohydrates, fats, and proteins function, you will be able to construct a healthy eating plan that will assist you in maintaining levels that are appropriate for you. You can get started with the assistance of a diabetic educator or a licensed dietitian.
Complications Associated with Diabetes Type 1
Particularly if it isn’t managed properly, type 1 diabetes can bring on a host of other complications. Complicacies include the following:
Cardiovascular illness. Diabetes can significantly increase your likelihood of developing blood clots, in addition to elevating your blood pressure and cholesterol levels. Chest pain, a heart attack, a stroke, or heart failure may result from these conditions.
Skin issues. Infections caused by bacteria or fungi are more common in diabetics than the general population. Blistering or rash is another symptom that can be caused by diabetes.
Gum disease. Oral difficulties can be caused by a lack of saliva, an excessive buildup of plaque, and inadequate blood flow.
Pregnancy problems. Preeclampsia, premature delivery, birth abnormalities, and stillbirth are all more likely to occur in women who have type 1 diabetes.
Retinopathy. About eighty percent of persons who have had type 1 diabetes for more than 15 years will experience this eye condition at some point in their lives. No of how long a person has had the condition, the risk of it occurring before puberty is extremely low. Maintaining adequate control of blood sugar, blood pressure, cholesterol, and triglycerides will help avoid diabetic retinopathy, which can help you preserve your eyesight.
Kidney injury. Nephropathy is a disorder that develops in approximately 20% to 30% of patients who have type 1 diabetes. The more one waits, the better their prospects. The risk of developing it is highest between 15 and 25 years after diabetes was first diagnosed. It is possible for it to result in other major complications, such as kidney failure and heart disease.
Damage to the nerves and circulation problems. Your feet will lose their sensibility and their ability to receive blood supply if the nerves and arteries in them become hardened and damaged. This not only increases the likelihood that you may sustain an injury but also makes it more difficult for open wounds and sores to heal. If something like that takes place, you run the risk of losing a limb. Damage to the nerves in your body can also lead to digestive issues such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
You are able to take measures to prevent any issues from occurring.
Make it a priority to keep a close eye on your blood sugar levels.
Keep an eye on both your blood pressure and your cholesterol levels.
If you smoke, quit.
Be mindful of the health of both your feet and your teeth.
Examine your eyes, teeth, and overall health on a consistent basis.